Legal basics to provide cooperation between authorities and citizens in European union countries
Subject of legal regulation in the EU, European law in a general and narrow sense are considered.
The European Union law is a set of legal rules regulating the European integration processes and the European Union activity.
It is emphasized that specificity of the European Union law consists in a system of legal principles, whereof the leading ones are the principle of the European Union law prevalence over the national law of its member states and the principle of the EU law direct impact.
The main subjects of the European Union law are defined as individuals, legal entities, states, the European Union, its institutions and functionaries.
It is stated that the subject of legal regulation for the EU law is social relations formed in the process of complex integration by the European states, as well as those social relations that require creation, change or development in order to optimize integration within the EU.
Subjects and principles of the EU law, primary and secondary sources of the European Union law, European documents aimed at spreading and efficiency of public engagement are studied.
It is emphasized that civil society in the EU operates within the framework of a multi-tiered system of governance by supranational representative bodies. The processes of modernization within the governance system in the European Union countries demonstrate the need for greater transparency and accountability of the authorities, and therefore require the introduction of various forms of representation and participation in public life, especially in areas such as environmental protection, health care, and consumer rights protection.
The main principles of cooperation between the EU authorities and public institutions set out in the Code of Good Practice for Public Participation in Decision-Making are defined.
Documents of the Council of Europe and several legal frameworks, as well as experience of individual countries, distinguish the following levels of participation: access to information, consultation, active participation (partnership).
The key elements of success at engaging citizens in public policy formation are: informing the community, consulting with experts representing public, public participation in decision-making.
The need for authorities to engage citizens into certain elements of governing their settlement, city, country is directly stated in the constitutions, laws and regulations of the European countries, decisions by local self-government bodies.
The standards of openness and information provision in the European Union countries are studied.
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